When examining the vast literature on critical thinking, various definitions of critical thinking emerge. Here are some samples: To recognize its strengths and weaknesses and, as a result, 2. To recast the thinking in improved form" Center for Critical Thinking, c.
To articulate, preserve, and foster high standards of research, scholarship, and instruction in critical thinking.
To articulate the standards upon which "quality" thinking is based and the criteria by means of which thinking, and instruction for thinking, can be appropriately cultivated and assessed. To assess programs which claim to foster higher-order critical thinking.
To disseminate information that aids educators and others in identifying quality critical thinking programs and approaches which ground the reform and restructuring of education on a systematic cultivation of disciplined universal and domain specific intellectual standards.
Founding Principles There is an intimate interrelation between knowledge and thinking.
Knowing that something is so is not simply a matter of believing that it is so, it also entails being justified in that belief Definition: Knowledge is justified true belief.
There are general, as well as domain-specific, standards for the assessment of thinking. To achieve knowledge in any domain, it is essential to think critically.
Critical thinking is based on articulable intellectual standards and hence is intrinsically subject to assessment by those standards. Criteria for the assessment of thinking in all domains are based on such general standards as: These standards, and others, are embedded not only in the history of the intellectual and scientific communities, but also in the self-assessing behavior of reasonable persons in everyday life.
It is possible to teach all subjects in such a way as to encourage the use of these intellectual standards in both professional and personal life. Instruction in critical thinking should increasingly enable students to assess both their own thought and action and that of others by reference, ultimately, to standards such as those above.
It should lead progressively, in other words, to a disciplining of the mind and to a self-chosen commitment to a life of intellectual and moral integrity. Instruction in all subject domains should result in the progressive disciplining of the mind with respect to the capacity and disposition to think critically within that domain.
Hence, instruction in science should lead to disciplined scientific thinking; instruction in mathematics should lead to disciplined mathematical thinking; instruction in history should lead to disciplined historical thinking; and in a parallel manner in every discipline and domain of learning.
Disciplined thinking with respect to any subject involves the capacity on the part of the thinker to recognize, analyze, and assess the basic elements of thought: Critical reading, writing, speaking, and listening are academically essential modes of learning. To be developed generally they must be systematically cultivated in a variety of subject domains as well as with respect to interdisciplinary issues.
Each are modes of thinking which are successful to the extent that they are disciplined and guided by critical thought and reflection. The earlier that children develop sensitivity to the standards of sound thought and reasoning, the more likely they will develop desirable intellectual habits and become open-minded persons responsive to reasonable persuasion.Critical Thinking and Communication: The Use of Reason in Argument, 6th Edition.
This title is currently unavailable on myPearsonStore. We recommend Critical Thinking and Communication: The Use of Reason in Argument, 7th Edition as a replacement. It has proven very effective in teaching students step-by-step how to recognize claims, evidence and reasoning.
Each chapter contains very practical exercises for students to complete proving they grasp the concepts of the chapter.
Very clear examples are provided of arguments and the impact of culture on argument (in one chapter). Critical Thinking and Communication: The Use of Reason in Argument, 6th ed.
by Edward S. Inch & Barbara Warnick and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at vetconnexx.com Critical Thinking and Communication: The Use of Reason in Argument, 7th Edition. Critical thinking and communication: the use of reason in argument.
[Edward S Inch; Barbara Warnick] -- Relating common theoretical models to true-to-life examples from law, ethics, education, and business, Inch and Warnick stress the importance of argumentation in everyday life.
Turbocharge your reasoning with Critical Thinking. Just what are the ingredients of a great argument? What is the secret to communicating your ideas clearly and persuasively?