In this set article, Professor Louise Stoll explores the relationship between school culture and school improvement.
The greatest damage they have inflicted on public education, however, lies not in a mistrained corps of educators but in the effects of their virtually evidence-free theories and practices on the K curriculum as conveyed by these educators and the textbooks used in K Then, using excerpts from the pedagogical framework of a leading grade 11 American literature anthology authored by leading professors of English education in the country, I show how the application of this pedagogical theory to literary study leads to an intellectually, socially, and civically dysfunctional school curriculum.
General Theories Driving the Pedagogy Taught in Education Schools Two major pedagogical theories on learning drive most of the pedagogy promoted in education schools today.
Although both theories are concerned with motivation to learn, especially the motivation of the lowest-achieving students in our public schools, they have affected the school curriculum in different ways. One theory, often called constructivism, assumes that motivation to learn is enhanced by the opportunity to choose what to learn and how to learn it.
This theory claims that what students learn must be self-constructed from their own initiatives and experiences. Meaningful learning is said to take place only when students can construct, with their peers, their own understanding of the world they live in, whether from personal experience or from the texts they choose to read.
Reader Response theory is a version of this pedagogical theory for literary study—how to teach students to read a literary text. In its radical form, the pedagogical strategies that are related to this theory encourage students to interpret what they read through the lens of personal experience, regardless of what the author actually wroteAny interpretation of a text can be considered valid.
The influence of reader response pedagogy on the students of several generations of elementary and secondary English teachers has been enormous. Although designed for illiterate farmers and fishermen, his ideas spread throughout the educational world like wildfire, even though independent evaluations of his work in Brazil or elsewhere attesting to the efficacy of his ideas at any educational level and for any group of students have yet to be located.
Critical pedagogy has strongly influenced the teaching of history in the schools, accelerating its absorption into the social studies with a stress on the academic trinity of race, ethnicity, and gender. In essays published in, andI showed how the secondary literature curriculum was also being transformed by a social justice theory.
Like the constructivists, the advocates of critical pedagogy are uninterested in the teaching of reading skills or literary appreciation. The social and political criteria it justified not only helped to determine the literary works read in the English class and the thematic connections that students were encouraged to see among these works, they motivated the use of other kinds of material as well—videos, diaries, letters, and a variety of other primary documents.
As I show in an essay published inby intention, not default, the English class has more and more been turned into an ersatz social studies class, with debased or biased content taught by a moralizing pedagogue untrained in history or any social science. Not only has it been approved for adoption in textbook adoption states,it is also the anthology that the University of California chose to feature in its online pilot course for a grade 11 course in American literature in On what basis might the pedagogy presented in this anthology be perceived as authoritative in the field and as reflecting what is promoted in English education coursework?
To begin with, most of its eight authors are nationally known education professors in English education. A back-breaking pages long, with over excerpts and complete selections from a variety of genres, the organization of the anthology reflects a social studies approach.
The result is that contemporary selections addressing the constructs of race, ethnicity, and gender cast a heavy presentistic shadow on the older selections with which they are thematically grouped.
Not only have many readings chosen for their thematic relevance been lifted out of their historical context e. Most probably because the absence of mainstream American authors would be noticed immediately in a perusal of the Table of Contents by experienced English teachers and parents, and no textbook publisher for the high school market could afford the controversy that would be ignited by an American literature anthology for grade 10 or 11 that bore no resemblance to the American literary history they studied when they were in high school.
The questions asking students to make links to their lives reflect constructivist pedagogical theory. Many English teachers do not have the historical knowledge or political sophistication to know how to use the selections or questions in the ST to implement a social justice approach to the fullest extent possible.
Readers familiar with the highly slanted, derogatory material in current college textbooks or conferences on American history, values, and policies towards the rest of the world may not find the examples that I offer from the pedagogical apparatus in the ST or TE particularly startling or outrageous.
But one must recall that most K textbooks purchased for whole-class use are first vetted by large groups of teachers and others, especially in adoption states. As a result, these textbooks must not readily appear to be promoting a particular social and political agenda, one that some older teachers and many parents might be vehemently opposed to.
These materials may be just as poisonously anti-civic or ridiculousas I point out in a review of some of these materials and workshops, but they generally come in under the radar screen.
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For example, there is almost no humor or irreverence e. There are few selections that will appeal to boys or help to socialize them, i. The history of expanding freedom in this country is turned into the history of growing oppression; while it is historically obvious that some groups achieved freedom from overt oppression, the after-effects linger in malevolent ways, or new forms of prejudice arise to brand Americans as unredeemably racist or bigoted.
The pedagogical apparatus is a reflection, often just a pale reflection, of what takes place in many humanities classes at the college level, but it has been guided directly by those who prepare prospective English teachers in English education methods courses or give professional development workshops to English teachers.Jul 26, · Gangs target schools in Central America, harassing and robbing students and creating a culture of fear.
widespread use of corporal punishment and its negative impact on children's emotional. Examining the Impact of Culture on Academic Performance By Matthew Lynch, Ed.D. A person's culture and upbringing has a profound effect on how they see the world and how they process information.
nevertheless, the swift progress during the industrial revolution had a negative impact on the environment in the short term and continues to effect society harmfully. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION HAD A MAJOR IMPACT ON THE LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS OF THE PEOPLE AT THE TIME, MANY OF THESE EFFECTS WERE NEGATIVE.
Home & Garden Pets on the Impact of Culture in the Classroom,” Giselle Mora-Bourgeois says culture refers to the ways in which different groups of people organize their daily lives within.
Giving Up Harmful Practices, Not Culture: and gender bias have received global attention due to their severe, negative impact on the health and well-being of females. Efforts to alter or eradicate these practices are often met with suspicion or hostility from those communities practicing them, particularly when efforts originate from.
Oct 28, · As an example, some students may not have as many books read to them as are read to children in other homes. Not being able to read has a negative .