The coercive force of police officers in the united states

See Municipal police departments of the United States for a list Municipal police range from one-officer agencies sometimes still called the town marshal to the 40, person-strong New York City Police Department.

The coercive force of police officers in the united states

See Municipal police departments of the United States for a list Municipal police range from one-officer agencies sometimes still called the town marshal to the 40, person-strong New York City Police Department.

Most municipal agencies take the form Municipality Name Police Department. Most municipalities have their own police departments. Metropolitan departments, such as the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Departmenthave jurisdiction covering multiple communities and municipalities, often over a wide area typically share geographical boundaries within one or more cities or counties.

Metropolitan departments have usually been formed by a merger between local agencies, typically several local police departments and often the local sheriff's department or office, in efforts to provide greater efficiency by centralizing command and resources and to resolve jurisdictional problems, often in communities experiencing rapid population growth and urban sprawlor in neighboring communities too small to afford individual police departments.

Some county sheriff's departments, such as the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Departmentare contracted to provide full police services to local cities within their counties. See Specialist police departments of the United States for a list There are other types of specialist police departments with varying jurisdictions.

Most of these serve special-purpose districts and are known as special district police. In some states, they serve as little more than security policebut in states such as California, special district forces are composed of fully sworn peace officers with statewide authority.

These agencies can be transit policeschool district police, campus policeairport policerailroad policepark police or police departments responsible for protecting government property, such as the former Los Angeles General Services Police.

As ofthe PRPD had over 17, officers. Cole and Christopher E. This is the broad mandate to keep the peace or otherwise prevent behaviors which might disturb others. This can deal with things ranging from a barking dog to a fist-fight. By way of description, Cole and Smith note that police are usually called-on to "handle" these situations with discretion, rather than deal with them as strict violations of law, though of course their authority to deal with these situations are based in violations of law.

Those powers are typically used only in cases where the law has been violated and a suspect must be identified and apprehended. Most obvious instances include robberymurderor burglary.

This is the popular notion of the main police function, but the frequency of such activity is dependent on geography and season.

Services may include rendering first aidproviding tourist information, guiding the disoriented, or acting as educators on topics such as preventing drug use.

Because police agencies are traditionally available year-round, 24 hours a day, citizens call upon police departments not only in times of trouble, but also when just inconvenienced. As a result, police services may include roadside autoassistance, providing referrals to other agencies, finding lost pets or property, or checking locks on vacationers' homes.

History[ edit ] Early policing in American history was based on the ancient English common law system which relied heavily on citizen volunteers, watch groups, and a conscription system known as posse comitatus similar to the militia systemwhich continued until the mid-Nineteenth century.

Police reform in the United States There have been many initiatives to reform policing, notably since the s, under President Lyndon Johnson, and several more recent efforts. Police departments across the country continue to be scandalized by instances of corruption and brutality.

Reforms based on community dialogue, legal requirements and updating of police training is growing. Militarization of police[ edit ] Main article: In recent years, the use of military equipment and tactics for community policing and for public order policing has become more widespread under the program.

Inthe Trump administration announced it will reinstate the program. Some of the more controversial policies restrict, or even forbid, high-speed vehicular pursuits.

The distinction has also been defined between rural and urban policing models, which tended to function differently with separate hierarchical systems supporting each.

According to a study by James Q. Wilson "Varieties of Police Behavior", Harvard University Pressthere were three distinct types of policing developed in his study of eight communities.

Each style emphasized different police functions, and were linked to specific characteristics of the community the department served.

The coercive force of police officers in the united states

Wilson's field of study was in the United States, and it is not clear if similar studies have been done for other countries with different governmental organization and laws. This form of policing is implicitly less pro-active than other styles, and certain offenses may be "overlooked" on a variety of social, legal, and cultural grounds, as long as the public order is maintained.

Cole and Smith comment the broad discretion exercised in this style of policing can result in charges of discrimination, when it appears police treatment of different groups results in the perception that some groups get better treatment than others; Legalistic.

Emphasizes law enforcement and professionalism. This is usually found in reform-minded cities, with mixed socioeconomic composition. Officers are expected to generate a large number of arrests and citations, and act as if there were a single community standard for conduct, rather than different standards for different groups.Nonetheless, in , the New York City Police Department became the United States' first municipal police force to issue uniforms to its officers.

New York City was followed, in , by Boston, Chicago, and soon thereafter, other cities. There are 17, U.S. police agencies in the United States which include college campus police, sheriff departments, local police, and federal agencies. The law-enforcement purposes of these agencies are the investigation of suspected criminal activity, referral of the results of investigations to the courts, and the temporary detention of suspected criminals pending judicial action.

A study of police ethics around the world revealed that in the United States, the offense considered most serious by police officers surveyed was: Barker and Carter proposed that police abuse of authority comes in all of the following areas except. In , the city of Boston established the first American police force, followed by New York City in , Albany, NY and Chicago in , New Orleans and Cincinnati in , Philadelphia in , and Newark, NJ and Baltimore in (Harring , Lundman ; Lynch ).

The United States had not previously initiated a preemptive war, most of the world's nations were opposed to doing so, and strong arguments could be made that such an attack was a violation of international law.

This is one of the many limits of coercive power. Advantages of Coercive Force. The police officer confronting a robbery in. Related research: A study in Police Science and Management, “Police Crime and Less-Than-Lethal Coercive Force: A Description of the Criminal Misuse of Tasers,” used content analysis of newspaper articles on 24 police officers arrested for crimes involving inappropriate use of Tasers from January to May “The findings indicate that the cases examined did not involve much, if any, situational .

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