Next Reforms after In the electoral system put in place by the Reform Act remained intact, but it had come under increasing pressure throughout the s and s from the reformist movements. Inall voters had to be male adults over 21 years of age and the right to vote was still based upon a property qualification. By the early s around 1.
The Roman Republic At about the same time that popular government was introduced in Greece, it also appeared on the Italian Peninsula in the city of Rome. Like AthensRome was originally a city-state. Although it expanded rapidly by conquest and annexation far beyond its original borders to encompass all the Mediterranean world and much of western Europe, its government remained, in its basic features, that of a moderately large city-state.
Indeed, throughout the republican era until roughly the end of the first century bcRoman assemblies were held in the very small Forum at the centre of the city. Although Roman citizenship was conferred by birth, it was also granted by naturalization and by manumission of slaves.
As the Roman Republic expanded, it conferred citizenship in varying degrees to many of those within its enlarged boundaries. Despite their reputation for practicality and creativity, and notwithstanding many changes in the structure of Roman government over the course of centuries, the Romans never solved this problem.
Two millennia later, the solution—electing representatives to a Roman legislature —would seem obvious see below A democratic dilemma. As they adapted to the special features of their society, including its rapidly increasing size, the Romans created a political structure so complex and idiosyncratic that later democratic leaders chose not to emulate it.
The Comitia Curiata was composed of 30 curiae, or local groups, drawn from three ancient tribus, or tribes; the Comitia Centuriata consisted of centuries, or military units; the Concilium Plebis was drawn from the ranks of the plebes, or plebeians common people ; and the Comitia Tributalike the The undemocratic features of the reform act of britain after 1867 Assembly, was open to all citizens.
In all the assemblies, votes were counted by units centuries or tribes rather than by individuals; thus, insofar as a majority prevailed in voting, it would have been a majority of units, not of citizens. Although they collectively represented all Roman citizens, the assemblies were not sovereign.
Throughout the entire period of the republic, the Senate —an institution inherited from the earlier era of the Roman monarchy—continued to exercise great power.
Senators were chosen indirectly by the Comitia Centuriata; during the monarchy, they were drawn exclusively from the privileged patrician classthough later, during the republic, members of certain plebeian families were also admitted.
About six centuries later, in northern Italysome of these entities developed into more or less independent city-states and inaugurated systems of government based on wider—though not fully popular—participation and on the election of leaders for limited periods of time.
In this respect, their governments may be viewed as small-scale precursors of later representative systems. Such governments flourished for two centuries or more in a number of cities, including Venice, FlorenceSienaand Pisa.
Drawing on Latin rather than Greek, the Italians called their city-states republics, not democracies. Because they were more numerous than the upper classes and because they threatened and sometimes carried out violent uprisings, some of these groups were successful.
Thus, whether judged by the standards of Classical Greece or those of Europe and the United States in the 18th century and later, the Italian republics were not democracies.
Economic decline, corruption, factional disputes, civil wars, and wars with other states led to the weakening of some republican governments and their eventual replacement by authoritarian rulers, whether monarchs, princes, or soldiers. A democratic dilemma The Greeks, the Romans, and the leaders of the Italian republics were pioneers in creating popular governments, and their philosophers and commentators exercised enormous influence on later political thought.
Yet their political institutions were not emulated by the later founders of democratic governments in the nation-states of northern Europe and North America.
As the expansion of Rome had already demonstrated, these institutions were simply not suited to political associations significantly larger than the city-state. The enormous difference in size between a city-state and a nation-state points to a fundamental dilemma. By limiting the size of a city-state, citizens can in principle, if not always in practice, directly influence the conduct of their government—e.
But limiting size comes at a cost: Alternatively, by increasing the size of the city-state—i. Many city-states responded to this dilemma by forming alliances or confederations with other city-states and with larger political associations.
But the problem would not finally be solved until the development of representative government, which first appeared in northern Europe in the 18th century. Europe and North America to the 19th century Until the 17th century, democratic theorists and political leaders largely ignored the possibility that a legislature might consist neither of the entire body of citizens, as in Greece and Rome, nor of representatives chosen by and from a tiny oligarchy or hereditary aristocracyas in the Italian republics.
As with many political innovationsrepresentative government resulted less from philosophical speculation than from a search for practical solutions to a fairly self-evident problem. Nevertheless, the complete assimilation of representation into the theory and practice of democracy was still more than a century away.
Regional developments Continental Europe About ce, freemen and nobles in various parts of northern continental Europe began to participate directly in local assemblies, to which were later added regional and national assemblies consisting of representatives, some or all of whom came to be elected.
In the mountain valleys of the Alps, such assemblies developed into self-governing cantons, leading eventually to the founding of the Swiss Confederation in the 13th century.
Bylocal assemblies of Vikings were meeting in many areas of Scandinavia.
Eventually the Vikings realized that to deal with certain larger problems they needed more-inclusive associations, and in NorwaySweden, and Denmark regional assemblies developed. In Viking descendants in Iceland created the first example of what today would be called a national assembly, legislature, or parliament—the Althing see thing.
In later centuries, representative institutions also were established in the emerging nation-states of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. England Among the assemblies created in Europe during the Middle Agesthe one that most profoundly influenced the development of representative government was the English Parliament.The Reform Acts and representative democracy For centuries, Parliament consisted of a small landowning elite whose priorities were their own power and prosperity.
From the 18th century onwards, the social changes brought about by industrial growth and the decline of agriculture meant that the demographic landscape of Britain was altered.
SECTION. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. The Reform Act & The Reform Act Target We are developing our knowledge of the effects of the Reform Act ad the Reform Act In what ways was Britain undemocratic?
The Reform Act of An act of parliament that introduced wide spread change to the political system in . The second reform act of advanced Britain on its path to democracy although there remained many undemocratic aspects in the governance of Britain.
The reform bill did many things to increase democracy in Britain. It increased the electorate by a million meaning that one in . Democracy is government by the people, for the people. The second reform act of advanced Britain on its path to democracy although there remained many undemocratic aspects in the governance of Britain.
The reform bill did many things to increase democracy in Britain.