Vaccination debate

Infor the first time, ACIP expanded those guidelines to recommend the vaccine for boys between ages 11 and 12 as a form of cancer prevention. There is no cure for HPV, only treatment for related health problems. When it does not go away, however, HPV can cause cancer and genital warts.

Vaccination debate

To vaccinate or not to vaccinate? Searching for a verdict in the vaccination debate by Vivian Chou figures by Daniel Utter If you have been following the US presidential elections, you are, in all likelihood, aware Vaccination debate the controversy surrounding mandatory childhood vaccination.

Vaccines have risen to the limelight in recent years, but their history is much longer than that. Ever since the first vaccination was scientifically documented in [1], they have reshaped the landscape of human health and medicine.

The impacts of vaccines have ranged from the eradication of polio in the US [2] and the eradication of smallpox worldwide [3], to prevention of cancer of the liver [4] and the cervix [5].

Vaccination debate

In fact, vaccines have been so influential that some scientists consider them among the greatest successes in public health [6]. But not everyone shares this optimistic view of vaccines. At Vaccination debate core, the anti-vaccination movement argues that vaccines are unnecessary, ineffective, or dangerous.

But is this truly the case? A closer look at the evidence surrounding vaccinationists suggests that while the anti-vaccinationist ideals are compelling, a more accurate picture of vaccination may be found elsewhere.

In response to these antigens, the body produces molecules called antibodies [9] that enable our immune system to track down and kill the pathogen.

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The first time the body encounters a pathogen, it takes days to assemble enough antibodies to defeat the infection. In that time, the pathogen has the opportunity to attack the body, causing us to experience symptoms of illness.

After this first encounters, the body will memorize what the antigens look like, so that if the same pathogen strikes again, we will be able to launch a stronger, faster defense against future invasions. Vaccines teach the body to recognize a pathogen.

Specifically, vaccines contain the same antigens as pathogens Figure 1Bbut in a weakened or dead form, so that the body can learn what the pathogen looks like and produce antibodies Figure 1C in a safe and comparatively controlled manner.

Thus, when the body encounters the real pathogen, it is already trained and ready to eliminate the pathogen before it can do any damage Figure 1D. Importantly, a vaccine protects not only the individual to whom it is administered, but also the entire population. When the number of immunized individuals within a population reaches a critical threshold, herd immunity [10] is conferred Figure 2.

Herd immunity protects the entire population, even those who are not vaccinated are protected from disease. Herd immunity is crucial to protecting those who are not eligible for vaccines, such as infants, pregnant women, and immunocompromised adults.

This means that while vaccines may seem like a personal choice, vaccination protects the entire population—and accordingly, failure to vaccinate could have negative population-level consequences.

Building immunity through vaccination. B Vaccines contain these antigens or parts of themwithout the dangerous parts of the pathogen that cause disease.


C Upon injection of the antigens into the body, our immune systems generate antibodies Y-shapes which recognize the antigen. D If an infection by the same pathogen occurs in the future, the immune system already has antibodies at the ready.

The body can rapidly recognize the pathogen based on its antigen and launch a fast, effective defense. Are vaccines truly that effective?

History has also attested to the effectiveness of vaccines.Some anti-vaccination activists object to the unnatural quality of the vaccination practice, preferring, instead, the more traditional process of contracting a disease naturally, such as measles and chickenpox, which, after recovery, gives the person life-long immunity.

The vaccine debate has also lead to a controversy over the role of. graphical evidence shows vaccines didn't save us. historical facts exposing the dangers and ineffectiveness of vaccines. doctors and scientists condemn vaccination.

“The vaccine is most useful for young people who are least likely to have been exposed. But by this measure, America is failing. Due to our long history of anti-vaccine hysteria, and some conservative politicians’ perennial efforts to politicize anything remotely related to sex, HPV vaccination rates in the United States are terribly low.

Only 32 percent of girls ages 13 to 17 have. The vaccine debate isn't going anywhere and anecdotal stories and information will continue to creep into the minds of parents and cause concerns. Says Dr. Ha, "It's overwhelmingly difficult to be a parent these days, with so much medical information available at one's fingertips.

Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.

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Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate infectious a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified.

Watch full-length episodes of PBS documentary series FRONTLINE for free. The Vaccine War - Inside the raging debate: parents' right to make choices versus the needs of a community.

Childhood vaccines: Tough questions, straight answers - Mayo Clinic